Brexit Withdrawal Agreement Northern Ireland
The 599-page withdrawal agreement covers the following main areas: The withdrawal agreement provides for a transitional period until 31 December 2020, during which time the UK will remain in the internal market to ensure the smooth running of trade until a long-term relationship is concluded. If no agreement is reached by then, the UK will leave the single market without a trade deal on 1 January 2021. The withdrawal agreement is closely linked to a non-binding political declaration on future relations between the EU and the UK. On 15 November 2018, the day after the agreement and the support of the British government were presented, several members of the government resigned, including Dominic Raab, Secretary of State for leaving the European Union.  Early in the negotiations leading up to the UK`s withdrawal from the EU, the UK and the EU recognised the unique situation of Ireland and Northern Ireland. They agreed that a specific solution was needed to reconcile the different interests. Section 78A – NIHRC operates under the EU Withdrawal Agreement Complex negotiations concluded by a withdrawal agreement and a political declaration in October 2019 and which pave the way for an ordered withdrawal on 31 January 2020. On 3 February 2020, the European Commission recommended that the Council begin negotiations for a new partnership with the UNITED Kingdom. During the transition period, the UK is no longer a member state, but remains in the EU customs union and the internal market and remains bound by obligations under all EU international agreements. The notification triggered Article 50 of the Treaty on the European Union and allowed discussions on withdrawal to begin.
On the European Union side, the European Parliament also approved the ratification of the agreement on 29 January 2020 and the Council of the European Union approved the conclusion of the agreement by e-mail on 30 January 2020.  That is why, on 30 January 2020, the European Union also tabled its instrument for ratification of the agreement, concluding the agreement and allowing it to enter into force on the date of the UK`s withdrawal from the EU on 31 January 2020, at 11 .m GMT. The British Parliament approved the draft agreement by adopting on 23 January 2020 the implementing laws (the 2020 Withdrawal Agreement Act) of the European Union (withdrawal agreement). Following the signing of the agreement, the UK Government adopted and tabled the UK`s ratification instrument on 29 January 2020.  The agreement was ratified by the Council of the European Union on 30 January 2020, after approval by the European Parliament on 29 January 2020. The UK`s withdrawal from the EU came into force on 31 January 2020 at 11 .m GMT, when the withdrawal agreement came into force in accordance with Article 185. The Northern Ireland Protocol, known as the Irish Backstop, was an annex to the November 2018 draft agreement outlining provisions to avoid a hard border in Ireland after the UK`s withdrawal from the European Union. The protocol provided for a provision of the safety net to deal with the circumstances in which satisfactory alternative arrangements were to come into force at the end of the transition period. This project has been replaced by a new protocol that will be described as follows. The Protocol on Ireland and Northern Ireland will come into force at the end of the transitional period. It was designed as a stable and sustainable solution and can be expected to apply alongside any agreement on the future partnership. The reception of the agreement in the House of Commons ranged from cold to hostile, and the vote was delayed by more than a month.
Prime Minister May has received a motion of no confidence within her own party, but the EU has refused to accept further changes.